Ander

Beyond Jack-O'-Lanterns: The Ultimate Guide to Pumpkin Seeds


Beyond Jack-O'-Lanterns: The Ultimate Guide to Pumpkin Seeds

Dit is die tyd van die jaar waar u na die pampoen pleister en haal die prima pampoen uit vir Halloween te sny. Jack-o’-lanterns is eetbaar, maar dit smaak nie baie lekker nie (en die gesnyde oppervlaktes kan bakterieë bevat)-maar jy kan die pampoenpitte uitsoek en dit vir ’n happie rooster neem dit in herfsresepte in.

Gebakte appels met pampoenpitte

Cajun Barbecue Pampoenpitte Resep

iStock / Thinkstock

Chinese vyf speserye pampoenpitte

Kokos-kors-skelvis met kerriepampoensade

Ruk gekruide pampoensade

Hoofkreef bisque met geroosterde pampoenpitte

Gekapte pampoen met pampoenpitte

Mosterdgebakte salm met pampoenpitte

PointsPlus Geroosterde akker muurbal met komyn en pampoenpitte resep

Pampoenpitte, Feta en Champagne Druiwe Slaai Resep

Geroosterde beet en rucola slaai met geroosterde pampoenpitte

Geroosterde botterskorsie met geroosterde pampoenpitte

Sexy resep van Swiss Swiss Chard met goue rosyne en pampoenpitte

Wasabi soja pampoenpitte resep

In plaas daarvan om na die sak aartappelskyfies te strek, probeer om eerder hierdie gesonde, heerlike en pittige snack te maak. U kan die sade van 'n vars pampoen vir hierdie resep gebruik - dit is 'n super eenvoudige gereg wat heerlik smaak.

Klik hier vir die Wasabi Soja Pampoenpitte resep.


Die vreedsame genome van pampoene

Almal wat 'n pampoen na Halloween 'n pampoen op die grasperk gegooi het om wingerdstokke te ontdek wat die volgende somer langs die grond slinger, weet hoe maklik dit is om die plant te laat groei. Pampoene het 'n interessante geskiedenis en fassinerende genetika.

'N Kort geskiedenis van pampoene en ons

Pampoene het ongeveer 30 miljoen jaar gelede in Suid -Amerika ontstaan ​​toe twee ouer spesies saamgesmelt het.

Inheemse Amerikaners het aanvanklik pampoenpitte langs rivier- en stroombanke gestrooi. Toe hierdie vroeë boere begin koring verbou het, het hulle besef dat die breë pampoenblare wat op die grondoppervlakte versprei het, onkruid en vog inhou, sodat die mieliewortels die toringplante kon anker.

Die vroeë inheemse Amerikaners het baie gebruike vir pampoene gevind. Hulle het sade gebraai, repies van die sappige lemoenvleis geëet, die blomme by sop en bredies gevoeg, meel van geredde sade gemaal en die buitekant as bakkies gebruik.

Die pampoen het tydens die tweede viering 'n Thanksgiving -stapelvoedsel geword, nadat die immigrante na die nuwe wêreld geleer het oor die voedingswaarde en veelsydigheid van die oorspronklike Amerikaners. Die pelgrims het hul eie resepte bedink. Een gunsteling was om 'n pampoen uit te hol en dit te vul met eiers, room, heuning en speserye en dit in warm as te begrawe. Ure later haal hulle die roetpampoentjie uit en haal die heerlike binnegoed uit. Die pelgrims het ook pampoen gebruik om bier te maak, en die vrugte omgekeer en op die koppe gesit om bakagtige kapsel te lei.

Vroeë ontdekkingsreisigers het pampoenpitte teruggebring na Europa en verder. Maar Jack O & rsquoLanterns kom in die teenoorgestelde rigting, afkomstig uit Ierland, waar mense gesigte in stewige aartappels en raap gesny het, en uit Engeland, waar hulle beet gesny het. Hier is 'n interessante geskiedenis.

Vandag word die meeste pampoene in Indië en China verbou. Die woord & ldquopumpkin & rdquo kom van die Griekse Pep & otilden, vir groot spanspek. Dit & rsquos in die genus Cucurbita en in 'n & ldquotribe & rdquo met muskmeloenen, komkommers en waatlemoene.

Moderne pampoene is van twee spesies. Cucurbita maxima het voedsame, oranje vleis met 'n aantreklike tekstuur en geur. C. moschata is bekend vir sy weerstand teen stres, van insekplae tot nie-biologiese bedreigings soos uiterste temperature. Die kruising van die spesie lewer die geharde baster Shintosa, wat so 'n geweldige weerstand teen plae en stres het, dat produsente spanspekke en komkommerstingels op sy saailinge ent om sy uitstekende wortels te benut.

Baie moderne spesies het ontstaan ​​uit die verdubbeling van genome. Sommige het selfs twee keer verdubbel, insluitend die genome van alle gewerweldes en pampoene. 'N Artikel uit 2017 onthul die genoomvolgorde van die twee pampoensoorte, van navorsers van die Cornell-verbonde Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) en die National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

Die idee van genoomverdubbeling gaan terug na 'n boek uit 1970, Evolution by Gene Duplications, deur die genetikus Susumu Ohno, wat bekend geword het as die 2R -hipotese.

Die genome van die voorouers van alle blomplante het ongeveer 160 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel. Die grasse het voordele: die genome van koring, rys, koring en suikerriet het sowat 70 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel, dié van koring en suikerriet het weer verdubbel.

In die meeste gevalle van verdubbeling van die genoom het met verloop van tyd gene wat funksies gedupliseer het, verlore gegaan, gewoonlik uit een voorouergenoom. Mielies, katoen, mosterdonkruid en 'n paar kool, en selfs met ons eie genome, het ook die meeste van 'n voorouer se genoom uit die weg geruim.

'N Genetiese verhaal van twee pampoene

Die opeenvolging van die twee pampoengenome het navorsers in staat gestel om die tye van genoomduplisering beter vas te stel en die genetiese eienskappe en aanpasbare eienskappe van elke spesie uit te werk.

Beide spesies het 20 chromosome, wat twee & ldquopaleo-subgenome voorstel. Genetici vind dit uit met behulp van gene met bekende mutasiesyfers tesame met vergelykings van chromosoomkonfigurasies sowel as argeologiese data.

Maar die pampoene is ongewoon. Sedert ongeveer 3 miljoen jaar gelede bestaan ​​die genome van die twee voorouers uit die meer onlangse verdubbeling vreedsaam saam in dieselfde kern, anders as die ander dubbeldubblers wat die meeste bydraes van een ouer spesie selektief verloor het. Dit maak pampoene & ldquopaleotetraploïede. & Rdquo (& ldquoPloid & rdquo verwys na een volledige stel chromosome, dus beteken paleotetraploïed vier stelle. & Rdquo) Ander genomies vredeliewende paleotetraploïede is koring en die Afrika -klauwende padda Xenopus laevis, die modelorganisme waarop bioloë baie van die besonderhede van dierontwikkeling uitgewerk het.

Ons was opgewonde om uit te vind dat die huidige twee subgenome in pampoen grootliks die chromosoomstrukture van die twee stamvaders handhaaf ondanks die deel van dieselfde kern vir ten minste 3 miljoen jaar, & rdquo sê Shan Wu, eerste skrywer van die koerant en 'n BTI postdoc.

Gedetailleerd na die besonderhede, C. maxima & rsquos genoom is ongeveer 387 miljoen basisse tot C. moschata& rsquos 372 miljoen. C. maksima, die lekker een, het 30 siektes weerstand gene vir C. moschata& rsquos 57. En die ultrabestande baster Shintosa het nog meer.

Elke pampoengenoom het ongeveer 4 dosyn gene wat tekens toon van 'n positiewe seleksie en bly staan ​​omdat dit 'n voortplantingsvoordeel bied. En meer as 40% van elke genoom bestaan ​​uit herhaalde rye, oorblyfsels van die oudste verdubbeling.

Die volgorde van die genome van hierdie gunsteling vrugte sal praktiese gevolge hê, soos teel vir weerstand teen poeieragtige skimmel en verhoogde karotenoïedvlakke, wat die pampoen voedsamer maak.

Sê Zhangjun Fei, medeprofessor by BTI en senior skrywer van die koerant, en die pampoengenoomvolgorde van hoë gehalte sal lei tot 'n meer doeltreffende ontleding van die genetika onderliggend aan belangrike agronomiese eienskappe, en sodoende die teelproses vir die verbetering van pampoen versnel. & Rdquo

Die nuwe insigte in die verlede oor pampoene kan ook die tert wat ons binne 'n paar weke eet, verbeter.


Die vreedsame genome van pampoene

Almal wat 'n pampoen na Halloween 'n pampoen op die grasperk gegooi het om wingerdstokke te ontdek wat die volgende somer langs die grond slinger, weet hoe maklik dit is om die plant te laat groei. Pampoene het 'n interessante geskiedenis en fassinerende genetika.

'N Kort geskiedenis van pampoene en ons

Pampoene het ongeveer 30 miljoen jaar gelede in Suid -Amerika ontstaan ​​toe twee ouer spesies saamgesmelt het.

Inheemse Amerikaners het aanvanklik pampoenpitte langs rivier- en stroombanke gestrooi. Toe hierdie vroeë boere begin koring verbou het, het hulle besef dat die breë pampoenblare wat op die grondoppervlakte versprei het, onkruid en vog inhou, sodat die mieliewortels die toringplante kon anker.

Die vroeë inheemse Amerikaners het baie gebruike vir pampoene gevind. Hulle het sade gebraai, repies van die sappige lemoenvleis geëet, die blomme by sop en bredies gevoeg, meel van geredde sade gemaal en die buitekant as bakkies gebruik.

Die pampoen het tydens die tweede viering 'n Thanksgiving -stapelvoedsel geword, nadat die immigrante na die nuwe wêreld geleer het oor die voedingswaarde en veelsydigheid van die oorspronklike Amerikaners. Die pelgrims het hul eie resepte bedink. Een gunsteling was om 'n pampoen uit te hol en dit te vul met eiers, room, heuning en speserye en dit in warm as te begrawe. Ure later haal hulle die roetpampoentjie uit en haal die heerlike binnegoed uit. Die pelgrims het ook pampoen gebruik om bier te maak, en die vrugte omgekeer en op die koppe gesit om bakagtige kapsel te lei.

Vroeë ontdekkingsreisigers het pampoenpitte teruggebring na Europa en verder. Maar Jack O & rsquoLanterns kom in die teenoorgestelde rigting, afkomstig uit Ierland, waar mense gesigte in stewige aartappels en raap gesny het, en uit Engeland, waar hulle beet gesny het. Hier is 'n interessante geskiedenis.

Vandag word die meeste pampoene in Indië en China verbou. Die woord & ldquopumpkin & rdquo kom van die Griekse Pep & otilden, vir groot spanspek. Dit & rsquos in die genus Cucurbita en in 'n & ldquotribe & rdquo met muskmeloenen, komkommers en waatlemoene.

Moderne pampoene is van twee spesies. Cucurbita maxima het voedsame, oranje vleis met 'n aantreklike tekstuur en geur. C. moschata is bekend vir sy weerstand teen stres, van insekplae tot nie-biologiese bedreigings soos uiterste temperature. Die kruising van die spesie lewer die geharde baster Shintosa, wat so 'n geweldige weerstand teen plae en stres het, dat produsente spanspekke en komkommerstingels op sy saailinge ent om sy uitstekende wortels te benut.

Baie moderne spesies het ontstaan ​​uit die verdubbeling van genome. Sommige het selfs twee keer verdubbel, insluitend die genome van alle gewerweldes en pampoene. 'N Artikel uit 2017 onthul die genoomvolgorde van die twee pampoensoorte, van navorsers van die Cornell-verbonde Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) en die National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

Die idee van genoomverdubbeling gaan terug na 'n boek uit 1970, Evolution by Gene Duplications, deur die genetikus Susumu Ohno, wat bekend geword het as die 2R -hipotese.

Die genome van die voorouers van alle blomplante het ongeveer 160 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel. Die grasse het voordele: die genome van koring, rys, koring en suikerriet het sowat 70 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel, dié van koring en suikerriet het weer verdubbel.

In die meeste gevalle van verdubbeling van die genoom het met verloop van tyd gene wat funksies gedupliseer het, verlore gegaan, gewoonlik uit een voorouergenoom. Mielies, katoen, mosterdonkruid en 'n paar kool, en selfs met ons eie genome, het ook die meeste van 'n voorouer se genoom uit die weg geruim.

'N Genetiese verhaal van twee pampoene

Die opeenvolging van die twee pampoengenome het navorsers in staat gestel om die tye van genoomduplisering beter vas te stel en die genetiese eienskappe en aanpasbare eienskappe van elke spesie uit te werk.

Beide spesies het 20 chromosome, wat twee & ldquopaleo-subgenome voorstel. Genetici vind dit uit met behulp van gene met bekende mutasiesyfers tesame met vergelykings van chromosoomkonfigurasies sowel as argeologiese data.

Maar die pampoene is ongewoon. Sedert ongeveer 3 miljoen jaar gelede bestaan ​​die genome van die twee voorouers uit die meer onlangse verdubbeling vreedsaam saam in dieselfde kern, anders as die ander dubbeldubblers wat die meeste bydraes van een ouer spesie selektief verloor het. Dit maak pampoene & ldquopaleotetraploïede. & Rdquo (& ldquoPloid & rdquo verwys na een volledige stel chromosome, dus beteken paleotetraploïed vier stelle. & Rdquo) Ander genomies vredeliewende paleotetraploïede is koring en die Afrika -klauwende padda Xenopus laevis, die modelorganisme waarop bioloë baie van die besonderhede van dierontwikkeling uitgewerk het.

Ons was opgewonde om uit te vind dat die huidige twee subgenome in pampoen grootliks die chromosoomstrukture van die twee stamvaders handhaaf ondanks die deel van dieselfde kern vir ten minste 3 miljoen jaar, & rdquo sê Shan Wu, eerste skrywer van die koerant en 'n BTI postdoc.

Gedetailleerd na die besonderhede, C. maxima & rsquos genoom is ongeveer 387 miljoen basisse tot C. moschata& rsquos 372 miljoen. C. maksima, die lekker een, het 30 siektes weerstand gene vir C. moschata& rsquos 57. En die ultrabestande baster Shintosa het nog meer.

Elke pampoengenoom het ongeveer 4 dosyn gene wat tekens toon van 'n positiewe seleksie en bly staan ​​omdat dit 'n voortplantingsvoordeel bied. En meer as 40% van elke genoom bestaan ​​uit herhaalde rye, oorblyfsels van die oudste verdubbeling.

Die volgorde van die genome van hierdie gunsteling vrugte sal praktiese gevolge hê, soos teel vir weerstand teen poeieragtige skimmel en verhoogde karotenoïedvlakke, wat die pampoen voedsamer maak.

Sê Zhangjun Fei, medeprofessor by BTI en senior skrywer van die koerant, en die pampoengenoomvolgorde van hoë gehalte sal lei tot 'n meer doeltreffende ontleding van die genetika onderliggend aan belangrike agronomiese eienskappe, en sodoende die teelproses vir die verbetering van pampoen versnel. & Rdquo

Die nuwe insigte in die verlede oor pampoene kan ook die tert wat ons binne 'n paar weke eet, verbeter.


Die vreedsame genome van pampoene

Almal wat 'n pampoen na Halloween 'n pampoen op die grasperk gegooi het om wingerdstokke te ontdek wat die volgende somer langs die grond slinger, weet hoe maklik dit is om die plant te laat groei. Pampoene het 'n interessante geskiedenis en fassinerende genetika.

'N Kort geskiedenis van pampoene en ons

Pampoene het ongeveer 30 miljoen jaar gelede in Suid -Amerika ontstaan ​​toe twee ouer spesies saamgesmelt het.

Inheemse Amerikaners het aanvanklik pampoenpitte langs rivier- en stroombanke gestrooi. Toe hierdie vroeë boere begin koring verbou het, het hulle besef dat die breë pampoenblare wat op die grondoppervlakte versprei het, onkruid en vog inhou, sodat die mieliewortels die toringplante kon anker.

Die vroeë inheemse Amerikaners het baie gebruike vir pampoene gevind. Hulle het sade gebraai, repies van die sappige lemoenvleis geëet, die blomme by sop en bredies gevoeg, meel van geredde sade gemaal en die buitekant as bakkies gebruik.

Die pampoen het tydens die tweede viering 'n Thanksgiving -stapelvoedsel geword, nadat die immigrante na die nuwe wêreld geleer het oor die voedingswaarde en veelsydigheid van die oorspronklike Amerikaners. Die pelgrims het hul eie resepte bedink. Een gunsteling was om 'n pampoen uit te hol en dit te vul met eiers, room, heuning en speserye en dit in warm as te begrawe. Ure later haal hulle die roetpampoentjie uit en haal die heerlike binnegoed uit. Die pelgrims het ook pampoen gebruik om bier te maak, en die vrugte omgekeer en op die koppe gesit om bakagtige kapsel te lei.

Vroeë ontdekkingsreisigers het pampoenpitte teruggebring na Europa en verder. Maar Jack O & rsquoLanterns kom in die teenoorgestelde rigting, afkomstig uit Ierland, waar mense gesigte in stewige aartappels en raap gesny het, en uit Engeland, waar hulle beet gesny het. Hier is 'n interessante geskiedenis.

Vandag word die meeste pampoene in Indië en China verbou. Die woord & ldquopumpkin & rdquo kom van die Griekse Pep & otilden, vir groot spanspek. Dit & rsquos in die genus Cucurbita en in 'n & ldquotribe & rdquo met muskmeloenen, komkommers en waatlemoene.

Moderne pampoene is van twee spesies. Cucurbita maxima het voedsame, oranje vleis met 'n aantreklike tekstuur en geur. C. moschata is bekend vir sy weerstand teen stres, van insekplae tot nie-biologiese bedreigings soos uiterste temperature. Die kruising van die spesie lewer die geharde baster Shintosa, wat so 'n geweldige weerstand teen plae en stres het, dat produsente spanspekke en komkommerstingels op sy saailinge ent om sy uitstekende wortels te benut.

Baie moderne spesies het ontstaan ​​uit die verdubbeling van genome. Sommige het selfs twee keer verdubbel, insluitend die genome van alle gewerweldes en pampoene. 'N Artikel uit 2017 onthul die genoomvolgorde van die twee pampoensoorte, van navorsers van die Cornell-verbonde Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) en die National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

Die idee van genoomverdubbeling gaan terug na 'n boek uit 1970, Evolution by Gene Duplications, deur die genetikus Susumu Ohno, wat bekend geword het as die 2R -hipotese.

Die genome van die voorouers van alle blomplante het ongeveer 160 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel. Die grasse het voordele: die genome van koring, rys, koring en suikerriet het sowat 70 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel, dié van koring en suikerriet het weer verdubbel.

In die meeste gevalle van verdubbeling van die genoom het met verloop van tyd gene wat funksies gedupliseer het, verlore gegaan, gewoonlik uit een voorouergenoom. Mielies, katoen, mosterdonkruid en 'n paar kool, en selfs met ons eie genome, het ook die meeste van 'n voorouer se genoom uit die weg geruim.

'N Genetiese verhaal van twee pampoene

Die opeenvolging van die twee pampoengenome het navorsers in staat gestel om die tye van genoomduplisering beter vas te stel en die genetiese eienskappe en aanpasbare eienskappe van elke spesie uit te werk.

Beide spesies het 20 chromosome, wat twee & ldquopaleo-subgenome voorstel. Genetici vind dit uit met behulp van gene met bekende mutasiesyfers tesame met vergelykings van chromosoomkonfigurasies sowel as argeologiese data.

Maar die pampoene is ongewoon. Sedert ongeveer 3 miljoen jaar gelede bestaan ​​die genome van die twee voorouers uit die meer onlangse verdubbeling vreedsaam saam in dieselfde kern, anders as die ander dubbeldubblers wat die meeste bydraes van een ouer spesie selektief verloor het. Dit maak pampoene & ldquopaleotetraploïede. & Rdquo (& ldquoPloid & rdquo verwys na een volledige stel chromosome, dus beteken paleotetraploïed vier stelle. & Rdquo) Ander genomies vredeliewende paleotetraploïede is koring en die Afrika -klauwende padda Xenopus laevis, die modelorganisme waarop bioloë baie van die besonderhede van dierontwikkeling uitgewerk het.

Ons was opgewonde om uit te vind dat die huidige twee subgenome in pampoen grootliks die chromosoomstrukture van die twee stamvaders handhaaf ondanks die deel van dieselfde kern vir ten minste 3 miljoen jaar, & rdquo sê Shan Wu, eerste skrywer van die koerant en 'n BTI postdoc.

Gedetailleerd na die besonderhede, C. maxima & rsquos genoom is ongeveer 387 miljoen basisse tot C. moschata& rsquos 372 miljoen. C. maksima, die lekker een, het 30 siektes weerstand gene vir C. moschata& rsquos 57. En die ultrabestande baster Shintosa het nog meer.

Elke pampoengenoom het ongeveer 4 dosyn gene wat tekens toon van 'n positiewe seleksie en bly staan ​​omdat dit 'n voortplantingsvoordeel bied. En meer as 40% van elke genoom bestaan ​​uit herhaalde rye, oorblyfsels van die oudste verdubbeling.

Die volgorde van die genome van hierdie gunsteling vrugte sal praktiese gevolge hê, soos teel vir weerstand teen poeieragtige skimmel en verhoogde karotenoïedvlakke, wat die pampoen voedsamer maak.

Sê Zhangjun Fei, medeprofessor by BTI en senior skrywer van die koerant, en die pampoengenoomvolgorde van hoë gehalte sal lei tot 'n meer doeltreffende ontleding van die genetika onderliggend aan belangrike agronomiese eienskappe, en sodoende die teelproses vir die verbetering van pampoen versnel. & Rdquo

Die nuwe insigte in die verlede oor pampoene kan ook die tert wat ons binne 'n paar weke eet, verbeter.


Die vreedsame genome van pampoene

Almal wat 'n pampoen na Halloween 'n pampoen op die grasperk gegooi het om wingerdstokke te ontdek wat die volgende somer langs die grond slinger, weet hoe maklik dit is om die plant te laat groei. Pampoene het 'n interessante geskiedenis en fassinerende genetika.

'N Kort geskiedenis van pampoene en ons

Pampoene het ongeveer 30 miljoen jaar gelede in Suid -Amerika ontstaan ​​toe twee ouer spesies saamgesmelt het.

Inheemse Amerikaners het aanvanklik pampoenpitte langs rivier- en stroombanke gestrooi. Toe hierdie vroeë boere begin koring verbou het, het hulle besef dat die breë pampoenblare wat op die grondoppervlakte versprei het, onkruid en vog inhou, sodat die mieliewortels die toringplante kon anker.

Die vroeë inheemse Amerikaners het baie gebruike vir pampoene gevind. Hulle het sade gebraai, repies van die sappige lemoenvleis geëet, die blomme by sop en bredies gevoeg, meel van geredde sade gemaal en die buitekant as bakkies gebruik.

Die pampoen het tydens die tweede viering 'n Thanksgiving -stapelvoedsel geword, nadat die immigrante na die nuwe wêreld geleer het oor die voedingswaarde en veelsydigheid van die oorspronklike Amerikaners. Die pelgrims het hul eie resepte bedink. Een gunsteling was om 'n pampoen uit te hol en dit te vul met eiers, room, heuning en speserye en dit in warm as te begrawe. Ure later haal hulle die roetpampoentjie uit en haal die heerlike binnegoed uit. Die pelgrims het ook pampoen gebruik om bier te maak, en die vrugte omgekeer en op die koppe gesit om bakagtige kapsel te lei.

Vroeë ontdekkingsreisigers het pampoenpitte teruggebring na Europa en verder. Maar Jack O & rsquoLanterns kom in die teenoorgestelde rigting, afkomstig uit Ierland, waar mense gesigte in stewige aartappels en raap gesny het, en uit Engeland, waar hulle beet gesny het. Hier is 'n interessante geskiedenis.

Vandag word die meeste pampoene in Indië en China verbou. Die woord & ldquopumpkin & rdquo kom van die Griekse Pep & otilden, vir groot spanspek. Dit & rsquos in die genus Cucurbita en in 'n & ldquotribe & rdquo met muskmeloenen, komkommers en waatlemoene.

Moderne pampoene is van twee spesies. Cucurbita maxima het voedsame, oranje vleis met 'n aantreklike tekstuur en geur. C. moschata is bekend vir sy weerstand teen stres, van insekplae tot nie-biologiese bedreigings soos uiterste temperature. Die kruising van die spesie lewer die geharde baster Shintosa, wat so 'n geweldige weerstand teen plae en stres het, dat produsente spanspekke en komkommerstingels op sy saailinge ent om sy uitstekende wortels te benut.

Baie moderne spesies het ontstaan ​​uit die verdubbeling van genome. Sommige het selfs twee keer verdubbel, insluitend die genome van alle gewerweldes en pampoene. 'N Artikel uit 2017 onthul die genoomvolgorde van die twee pampoensoorte, van navorsers van die Cornell-verbonde Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) en die National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

Die idee van genoomverdubbeling gaan terug na 'n boek uit 1970, Evolution by Gene Duplications, deur die genetikus Susumu Ohno, wat bekend geword het as die 2R -hipotese.

Die genome van die voorouers van alle blomplante het ongeveer 160 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel. Die grasse het voordele: die genome van koring, rys, koring en suikerriet het sowat 70 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel, dié van koring en suikerriet het weer verdubbel.

In die meeste gevalle van verdubbeling van die genoom het met verloop van tyd gene wat funksies gedupliseer het, verlore gegaan, gewoonlik uit een voorouergenoom. Mielies, katoen, mosterdonkruid en 'n paar kool, en selfs met ons eie genome, het ook die meeste van 'n voorouer se genoom uit die weg geruim.

'N Genetiese verhaal van twee pampoene

Die opeenvolging van die twee pampoengenome het navorsers in staat gestel om die tye van genoomduplisering beter vas te stel en die genetiese eienskappe en aanpasbare eienskappe van elke spesie uit te werk.

Beide spesies het 20 chromosome, wat twee & ldquopaleo-subgenome voorstel. Genetici vind dit uit met behulp van gene met bekende mutasiesyfers tesame met vergelykings van chromosoomkonfigurasies sowel as argeologiese data.

Maar die pampoene is ongewoon. Sedert ongeveer 3 miljoen jaar gelede bestaan ​​die genome van die twee voorouers uit die meer onlangse verdubbeling vreedsaam saam in dieselfde kern, anders as die ander dubbeldubblers wat die meeste bydraes van een ouer spesie selektief verloor het. Dit maak pampoene & ldquopaleotetraploïede. & Rdquo (& ldquoPloid & rdquo verwys na een volledige stel chromosome, dus beteken paleotetraploïed vier stelle. & Rdquo) Ander genomies vredeliewende paleotetraploïede is koring en die Afrika -klauwende padda Xenopus laevis, die modelorganisme waarop bioloë baie van die besonderhede van dierontwikkeling uitgewerk het.

Ons was opgewonde om uit te vind dat die huidige twee subgenome in pampoen grootliks die chromosoomstrukture van die twee stamvaders handhaaf ondanks die deel van dieselfde kern vir ten minste 3 miljoen jaar, & rdquo sê Shan Wu, eerste skrywer van die koerant en 'n BTI postdoc.

Gedetailleerd na die besonderhede, C. maxima & rsquos genoom is ongeveer 387 miljoen basisse tot C. moschata& rsquos 372 miljoen. C. maksima, die lekker een, het 30 siektes weerstand gene vir C. moschata& rsquos 57. En die ultrabestande baster Shintosa het nog meer.

Elke pampoengenoom het ongeveer 4 dosyn gene wat tekens toon van 'n positiewe seleksie en bly staan ​​omdat dit 'n voortplantingsvoordeel bied. En meer as 40% van elke genoom bestaan ​​uit herhaalde rye, oorblyfsels van die oudste verdubbeling.

Die volgorde van die genome van hierdie gunsteling vrugte sal praktiese gevolge hê, soos teel vir weerstand teen poeieragtige skimmel en verhoogde karotenoïedvlakke, wat die pampoen voedsamer maak.

Sê Zhangjun Fei, medeprofessor by BTI en senior skrywer van die koerant, en die pampoengenoomvolgorde van hoë gehalte sal lei tot 'n meer doeltreffende ontleding van die genetika onderliggend aan belangrike agronomiese eienskappe, en sodoende die teelproses vir die verbetering van pampoen versnel. & Rdquo

Die nuwe insigte in die verlede oor pampoene kan ook die tert wat ons binne 'n paar weke eet, verbeter.


Die vreedsame genome van pampoene

Almal wat 'n pampoen na Halloween 'n pampoen op die grasperk gegooi het om wingerdstokke te ontdek wat die volgende somer langs die grond slinger, weet hoe maklik dit is om die plant te laat groei. Pampoene het 'n interessante geskiedenis en fassinerende genetika.

'N Kort geskiedenis van pampoene en ons

Pampoene het ongeveer 30 miljoen jaar gelede in Suid -Amerika ontstaan ​​toe twee ouer spesies saamgesmelt het.

Inheemse Amerikaners het aanvanklik pampoenpitte langs rivier- en stroombanke gestrooi. Toe hierdie vroeë boere begin koring verbou het, het hulle besef dat die breë pampoenblare wat op die grondoppervlakte versprei het, onkruid en vog inhou, sodat die mieliewortels die toringplante kon anker.

Die vroeë inheemse Amerikaners het baie gebruike vir pampoene gevind. Hulle het sade gebraai, repies van die sappige lemoenvleis geëet, die blomme by sop en bredies gevoeg, meel van geredde sade gemaal en die buitekant as bakkies gebruik.

Die pampoen het tydens die tweede viering 'n Thanksgiving -stapelvoedsel geword, nadat die immigrante na die nuwe wêreld geleer het oor die voedingswaarde en veelsydigheid van die oorspronklike Amerikaners. Die pelgrims het hul eie resepte bedink. Een gunsteling was om 'n pampoen uit te hol en dit te vul met eiers, room, heuning en speserye en dit in warm as te begrawe. Ure later haal hulle die roetpampoentjie uit en haal die heerlike binnegoed uit. Die pelgrims het ook pampoen gebruik om bier te maak, en die vrugte omgekeer en op die koppe gesit om bakagtige kapsel te lei.

Vroeë ontdekkingsreisigers het pampoenpitte teruggebring na Europa en verder. Maar Jack O & rsquoLanterns kom in die teenoorgestelde rigting, afkomstig uit Ierland, waar mense gesigte in stewige aartappels en raap gesny het, en uit Engeland, waar hulle beet gesny het. Hier is 'n interessante geskiedenis.

Vandag word die meeste pampoene in Indië en China verbou. Die woord & ldquopumpkin & rdquo kom van die Griekse Pep & otilden, vir groot spanspek. Dit & rsquos in die genus Cucurbita en in 'n & ldquotribe & rdquo met muskmeloenen, komkommers en waatlemoene.

Moderne pampoene is van twee spesies. Cucurbita maxima het voedsame, oranje vleis met 'n aantreklike tekstuur en geur. C. moschata is bekend vir sy weerstand teen stres, van insekplae tot nie-biologiese bedreigings soos uiterste temperature. Die kruising van die spesie lewer die geharde baster Shintosa, wat so 'n geweldige weerstand teen plae en stres het, dat produsente spanspekke en komkommerstingels op sy saailinge ent om sy uitstekende wortels te benut.

Baie moderne spesies het ontstaan ​​uit die verdubbeling van genome. Sommige het selfs twee keer verdubbel, insluitend die genome van alle gewerweldes en pampoene. 'N Artikel uit 2017 onthul die genoomvolgorde van die twee pampoensoorte, van navorsers van die Cornell-verbonde Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) en die National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

Die idee van genoomverdubbeling gaan terug na 'n boek uit 1970, Evolution by Gene Duplications, deur die genetikus Susumu Ohno, wat bekend geword het as die 2R -hipotese.

Die genome van die voorouers van alle blomplante het ongeveer 160 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel. Die grasse het voordele: die genome van koring, rys, koring en suikerriet het sowat 70 miljoen jaar gelede verdubbel, dié van koring en suikerriet het weer verdubbel.

In die meeste gevalle van verdubbeling van die genoom het met verloop van tyd gene wat funksies gedupliseer het, verlore gegaan, gewoonlik uit een voorouergenoom. Mielies, katoen, mosterdonkruid en 'n paar kool, en selfs met ons eie genome, het ook die meeste van 'n voorouer se genoom uit die weg geruim.

'N Genetiese verhaal van twee pampoene

Die opeenvolging van die twee pampoengenome het navorsers in staat gestel om die tye van genoomduplisering beter vas te stel en die genetiese eienskappe en aanpasbare eienskappe van elke spesie uit te werk.

Beide spesies het 20 chromosome, wat twee & ldquopaleo-subgenome voorstel. Genetici vind dit uit met behulp van gene met bekende mutasiesyfers tesame met vergelykings van chromosoomkonfigurasies sowel as argeologiese data.

Maar die pampoene is ongewoon. Sedert ongeveer 3 miljoen jaar gelede bestaan ​​die genome van die twee voorouers uit die meer onlangse verdubbeling vreedsaam saam in dieselfde kern, anders as die ander dubbeldubblers wat die meeste bydraes van een ouer spesie selektief verloor het. Dit maak pampoene & ldquopaleotetraploïede. & Rdquo (& ldquoPloid & rdquo verwys na een volledige stel chromosome, dus beteken paleotetraploïed vier stelle. & Rdquo) Ander genomies vredeliewende paleotetraploïede is koring en die Afrika -klauwende padda Xenopus laevis, die modelorganisme waarop bioloë baie van die besonderhede van dierontwikkeling uitgewerk het.

Ons was opgewonde om uit te vind dat die huidige twee subgenome in pampoen grootliks die chromosoomstrukture van die twee stamvaders handhaaf ondanks die deel van dieselfde kern vir ten minste 3 miljoen jaar, & rdquo sê Shan Wu, eerste skrywer van die koerant en 'n BTI postdoc.

Gedetailleerd na die besonderhede, C. maxima & rsquos genoom is ongeveer 387 miljoen basisse tot C. moschata& rsquos 372 miljoen. C. maksima, die lekker een, het 30 siektes weerstand gene vir C. moschata& rsquos 57. En die ultrabestande baster Shintosa het nog meer.

Elke pampoengenoom het ongeveer 4 dosyn gene wat tekens toon van 'n positiewe seleksie en bly staan ​​omdat dit 'n voortplantingsvoordeel bied. En meer as 40% van elke genoom bestaan ​​uit herhaalde rye, oorblyfsels van die oudste verdubbeling.

Sequencing the genomes of this favorite fruit will have practical repercussions, such as breeding for resistance to powdery mildew and increased carotenoid levels, making the pumpkin more nutritious.

Said Zhangjun Fei, associate professor at BTI and senior author of the paper, &ldquoThe high-quality pumpkin genome sequences will lead to more efficient dissection of the genetics underlying important agronomic traits, thus accelerating the breeding process for pumpkin improvement.&rdquo

The new insights into the past of pumpkins might also improve the pie that we&rsquoll be eating in a few weeks.


The Peaceable Genomes of Pumpkins

Anyone who&rsquos tossed a pumpkin onto the lawn after Halloween to discover vines snaking along the ground the next summer knows how easy it is to grow the plant. Pumpkins have an intriguing history and fascinating genetics.

A Brief History of Pumpkins and Us

Pumpkins arose in South America, about 30 million years ago, as two older species merged.

At first Native Americans sprinkled pumpkin seeds along river and stream banks. Once these early farmers began to cultivate corn, they realized that the broad pumpkin leaves spread on the soil surface kept weeds out and moisture in, enabling the maize roots to anchor the towering plants.

The early Native Americans found many uses for pumpkins. They roasted seeds, ate strips of the succulent orange flesh, added the flowers to soups and stews, ground flour from saved seeds, and used the outsides as bowls.

The pumpkin became a Thanksgiving staple at the second celebration, after the immigrants to the New World had learned about its nutritional value and versatility from the original Americans. The pilgrims devised their own recipes. One favorite was to hollow a pumpkin out and stuff it with eggs, cream, honey, and spices and bury it in hot ashes. Hours later they hauled out the soot-encrusted squash and scooped out the delicious innards. The pilgrims also used pumpkin to make beer, and inverted the fruits and plunked them on heads to guide bowl-like haircuts.

Early explorers brought pumpkin seeds back to Europe and beyond. But Jack O&rsquoLanterns came in the opposite direction, hailing from Ireland, where people carved faces into hefty potatoes and turnips, and from England, where they carved beets. Here&rsquos an intriguing history.

Today most pumpkins are grown in India and China. The word &ldquopumpkin&rdquo comes from the Greek Pepõn, for large melon. It&rsquos in genus Cucurbita and in a &ldquotribe&rdquo with muskmelons, cucumbers, and watermelons.

Modern pumpkins are of two species. Cucurbita maxima has nutritious, orange flesh with an appealing texture and flavor. C. moschata is known for its resistance to stress, from insect pests to non-biological threats like extreme temperatures. Crossing the species yields the hardy hybrid Shintosa, which has such terrific resistance to pests and stress that growers graft melons and cucumber stems to its seedlings to tap into its superb roots.

Many modern species arose from doubling genomes. Some have even doubled twice, including the genomes of all vertebrates and of pumpkins. An article from 2017 unveiled the genome sequences of the two pumpkin species, from researchers at the Cornell-affiliated Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) and the National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

The idea of genome doubling goes back to a 1970 book, Evolution by Gene Duplications, by geneticist Susumu Ohno, which became known as the 2R hypothesis.

The genomes of the ancestors of all flowering plants doubled about 160 million years ago. The grasses are pros at it: the genomes of corn, rice, wheat, and sugarcane doubled some 70 million years ago, those of corn and sugarcane doubling again.

In most cases of genome doubling, over time, genes that duplicated functions were lost, usually from one ancestral genome. Corn, cotton, mustard weed, and some cabbages, and even with our own genomes, have also jettisoned most of one ancestral genome.

A Genetic Tale of Two Pumpkins

Sequencing of the two pumpkin genomes enabled researchers to better pinpoint the times of genome duplication, and to flesh out the genetic characteristics and adaptive traits of each species.

Both species have 20 chromosomes, which represent two &ldquopaleo-subgenomes.&rdquo The first genome diverged about 31 million years ago and the second between 3.04 and 3.84 million years ago. Geneticists figure this out using genes with known mutation rates coupled with comparisons of chromosome configurations as well as archaeological data.

But the pumpkins are unusual. Since about 3 million years ago, the genomes of the two ancestors from the more recent doubling have peacefully co-existed within the same nucleus, unlike the other double-doublers that have selectively lost most of the contributions of one parent species. This makes pumpkins &ldquopaleotetraploid.&rdquo (&ldquoPloid&rdquo refers to one full set of chromosomes, so paleotetraploid means &ldquoold four sets.&rdquo) Other genomically peaceable paleotetraploids are wheat and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, the model organism on which biologists have worked out many of the details of animal development.

&ldquoWe were excited to find out that the current two subgenomes in pumpkin largely maintain the chromosome structures of the two progenitors despite sharing the same nucleus for at least 3 million years,&rdquo said Shan Wu, first author of the paper and a BTI postdoc.

Drilling down to the details, C. maxima&rsquos genome is about 387 million bases to C. moschata&rsquos 372 million. C. maxima, the tasty one, has 30 disease resistance genes to C. moschata&rsquos 57. And the ultra-resistant hybrid Shintosa has even more.

Each pumpkin genome has about 4 dozen genes that show signs of positive selection &ndash persisting because they provide a reproductive advantage. And more than 40% of each genome consists of repeated sequences, holdovers from the most ancient doubling.

Sequencing the genomes of this favorite fruit will have practical repercussions, such as breeding for resistance to powdery mildew and increased carotenoid levels, making the pumpkin more nutritious.

Said Zhangjun Fei, associate professor at BTI and senior author of the paper, &ldquoThe high-quality pumpkin genome sequences will lead to more efficient dissection of the genetics underlying important agronomic traits, thus accelerating the breeding process for pumpkin improvement.&rdquo

The new insights into the past of pumpkins might also improve the pie that we&rsquoll be eating in a few weeks.


The Peaceable Genomes of Pumpkins

Anyone who&rsquos tossed a pumpkin onto the lawn after Halloween to discover vines snaking along the ground the next summer knows how easy it is to grow the plant. Pumpkins have an intriguing history and fascinating genetics.

A Brief History of Pumpkins and Us

Pumpkins arose in South America, about 30 million years ago, as two older species merged.

At first Native Americans sprinkled pumpkin seeds along river and stream banks. Once these early farmers began to cultivate corn, they realized that the broad pumpkin leaves spread on the soil surface kept weeds out and moisture in, enabling the maize roots to anchor the towering plants.

The early Native Americans found many uses for pumpkins. They roasted seeds, ate strips of the succulent orange flesh, added the flowers to soups and stews, ground flour from saved seeds, and used the outsides as bowls.

The pumpkin became a Thanksgiving staple at the second celebration, after the immigrants to the New World had learned about its nutritional value and versatility from the original Americans. The pilgrims devised their own recipes. One favorite was to hollow a pumpkin out and stuff it with eggs, cream, honey, and spices and bury it in hot ashes. Hours later they hauled out the soot-encrusted squash and scooped out the delicious innards. The pilgrims also used pumpkin to make beer, and inverted the fruits and plunked them on heads to guide bowl-like haircuts.

Early explorers brought pumpkin seeds back to Europe and beyond. But Jack O&rsquoLanterns came in the opposite direction, hailing from Ireland, where people carved faces into hefty potatoes and turnips, and from England, where they carved beets. Here&rsquos an intriguing history.

Today most pumpkins are grown in India and China. The word &ldquopumpkin&rdquo comes from the Greek Pepõn, for large melon. It&rsquos in genus Cucurbita and in a &ldquotribe&rdquo with muskmelons, cucumbers, and watermelons.

Modern pumpkins are of two species. Cucurbita maxima has nutritious, orange flesh with an appealing texture and flavor. C. moschata is known for its resistance to stress, from insect pests to non-biological threats like extreme temperatures. Crossing the species yields the hardy hybrid Shintosa, which has such terrific resistance to pests and stress that growers graft melons and cucumber stems to its seedlings to tap into its superb roots.

Many modern species arose from doubling genomes. Some have even doubled twice, including the genomes of all vertebrates and of pumpkins. An article from 2017 unveiled the genome sequences of the two pumpkin species, from researchers at the Cornell-affiliated Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) and the National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

The idea of genome doubling goes back to a 1970 book, Evolution by Gene Duplications, by geneticist Susumu Ohno, which became known as the 2R hypothesis.

The genomes of the ancestors of all flowering plants doubled about 160 million years ago. The grasses are pros at it: the genomes of corn, rice, wheat, and sugarcane doubled some 70 million years ago, those of corn and sugarcane doubling again.

In most cases of genome doubling, over time, genes that duplicated functions were lost, usually from one ancestral genome. Corn, cotton, mustard weed, and some cabbages, and even with our own genomes, have also jettisoned most of one ancestral genome.

A Genetic Tale of Two Pumpkins

Sequencing of the two pumpkin genomes enabled researchers to better pinpoint the times of genome duplication, and to flesh out the genetic characteristics and adaptive traits of each species.

Both species have 20 chromosomes, which represent two &ldquopaleo-subgenomes.&rdquo The first genome diverged about 31 million years ago and the second between 3.04 and 3.84 million years ago. Geneticists figure this out using genes with known mutation rates coupled with comparisons of chromosome configurations as well as archaeological data.

But the pumpkins are unusual. Since about 3 million years ago, the genomes of the two ancestors from the more recent doubling have peacefully co-existed within the same nucleus, unlike the other double-doublers that have selectively lost most of the contributions of one parent species. This makes pumpkins &ldquopaleotetraploid.&rdquo (&ldquoPloid&rdquo refers to one full set of chromosomes, so paleotetraploid means &ldquoold four sets.&rdquo) Other genomically peaceable paleotetraploids are wheat and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, the model organism on which biologists have worked out many of the details of animal development.

&ldquoWe were excited to find out that the current two subgenomes in pumpkin largely maintain the chromosome structures of the two progenitors despite sharing the same nucleus for at least 3 million years,&rdquo said Shan Wu, first author of the paper and a BTI postdoc.

Drilling down to the details, C. maxima&rsquos genome is about 387 million bases to C. moschata&rsquos 372 million. C. maxima, the tasty one, has 30 disease resistance genes to C. moschata&rsquos 57. And the ultra-resistant hybrid Shintosa has even more.

Each pumpkin genome has about 4 dozen genes that show signs of positive selection &ndash persisting because they provide a reproductive advantage. And more than 40% of each genome consists of repeated sequences, holdovers from the most ancient doubling.

Sequencing the genomes of this favorite fruit will have practical repercussions, such as breeding for resistance to powdery mildew and increased carotenoid levels, making the pumpkin more nutritious.

Said Zhangjun Fei, associate professor at BTI and senior author of the paper, &ldquoThe high-quality pumpkin genome sequences will lead to more efficient dissection of the genetics underlying important agronomic traits, thus accelerating the breeding process for pumpkin improvement.&rdquo

The new insights into the past of pumpkins might also improve the pie that we&rsquoll be eating in a few weeks.


The Peaceable Genomes of Pumpkins

Anyone who&rsquos tossed a pumpkin onto the lawn after Halloween to discover vines snaking along the ground the next summer knows how easy it is to grow the plant. Pumpkins have an intriguing history and fascinating genetics.

A Brief History of Pumpkins and Us

Pumpkins arose in South America, about 30 million years ago, as two older species merged.

At first Native Americans sprinkled pumpkin seeds along river and stream banks. Once these early farmers began to cultivate corn, they realized that the broad pumpkin leaves spread on the soil surface kept weeds out and moisture in, enabling the maize roots to anchor the towering plants.

The early Native Americans found many uses for pumpkins. They roasted seeds, ate strips of the succulent orange flesh, added the flowers to soups and stews, ground flour from saved seeds, and used the outsides as bowls.

The pumpkin became a Thanksgiving staple at the second celebration, after the immigrants to the New World had learned about its nutritional value and versatility from the original Americans. The pilgrims devised their own recipes. One favorite was to hollow a pumpkin out and stuff it with eggs, cream, honey, and spices and bury it in hot ashes. Hours later they hauled out the soot-encrusted squash and scooped out the delicious innards. The pilgrims also used pumpkin to make beer, and inverted the fruits and plunked them on heads to guide bowl-like haircuts.

Early explorers brought pumpkin seeds back to Europe and beyond. But Jack O&rsquoLanterns came in the opposite direction, hailing from Ireland, where people carved faces into hefty potatoes and turnips, and from England, where they carved beets. Here&rsquos an intriguing history.

Today most pumpkins are grown in India and China. The word &ldquopumpkin&rdquo comes from the Greek Pepõn, for large melon. It&rsquos in genus Cucurbita and in a &ldquotribe&rdquo with muskmelons, cucumbers, and watermelons.

Modern pumpkins are of two species. Cucurbita maxima has nutritious, orange flesh with an appealing texture and flavor. C. moschata is known for its resistance to stress, from insect pests to non-biological threats like extreme temperatures. Crossing the species yields the hardy hybrid Shintosa, which has such terrific resistance to pests and stress that growers graft melons and cucumber stems to its seedlings to tap into its superb roots.

Many modern species arose from doubling genomes. Some have even doubled twice, including the genomes of all vertebrates and of pumpkins. An article from 2017 unveiled the genome sequences of the two pumpkin species, from researchers at the Cornell-affiliated Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) and the National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

The idea of genome doubling goes back to a 1970 book, Evolution by Gene Duplications, by geneticist Susumu Ohno, which became known as the 2R hypothesis.

The genomes of the ancestors of all flowering plants doubled about 160 million years ago. The grasses are pros at it: the genomes of corn, rice, wheat, and sugarcane doubled some 70 million years ago, those of corn and sugarcane doubling again.

In most cases of genome doubling, over time, genes that duplicated functions were lost, usually from one ancestral genome. Corn, cotton, mustard weed, and some cabbages, and even with our own genomes, have also jettisoned most of one ancestral genome.

A Genetic Tale of Two Pumpkins

Sequencing of the two pumpkin genomes enabled researchers to better pinpoint the times of genome duplication, and to flesh out the genetic characteristics and adaptive traits of each species.

Both species have 20 chromosomes, which represent two &ldquopaleo-subgenomes.&rdquo The first genome diverged about 31 million years ago and the second between 3.04 and 3.84 million years ago. Geneticists figure this out using genes with known mutation rates coupled with comparisons of chromosome configurations as well as archaeological data.

But the pumpkins are unusual. Since about 3 million years ago, the genomes of the two ancestors from the more recent doubling have peacefully co-existed within the same nucleus, unlike the other double-doublers that have selectively lost most of the contributions of one parent species. This makes pumpkins &ldquopaleotetraploid.&rdquo (&ldquoPloid&rdquo refers to one full set of chromosomes, so paleotetraploid means &ldquoold four sets.&rdquo) Other genomically peaceable paleotetraploids are wheat and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, the model organism on which biologists have worked out many of the details of animal development.

&ldquoWe were excited to find out that the current two subgenomes in pumpkin largely maintain the chromosome structures of the two progenitors despite sharing the same nucleus for at least 3 million years,&rdquo said Shan Wu, first author of the paper and a BTI postdoc.

Drilling down to the details, C. maxima&rsquos genome is about 387 million bases to C. moschata&rsquos 372 million. C. maxima, the tasty one, has 30 disease resistance genes to C. moschata&rsquos 57. And the ultra-resistant hybrid Shintosa has even more.

Each pumpkin genome has about 4 dozen genes that show signs of positive selection &ndash persisting because they provide a reproductive advantage. And more than 40% of each genome consists of repeated sequences, holdovers from the most ancient doubling.

Sequencing the genomes of this favorite fruit will have practical repercussions, such as breeding for resistance to powdery mildew and increased carotenoid levels, making the pumpkin more nutritious.

Said Zhangjun Fei, associate professor at BTI and senior author of the paper, &ldquoThe high-quality pumpkin genome sequences will lead to more efficient dissection of the genetics underlying important agronomic traits, thus accelerating the breeding process for pumpkin improvement.&rdquo

The new insights into the past of pumpkins might also improve the pie that we&rsquoll be eating in a few weeks.


The Peaceable Genomes of Pumpkins

Anyone who&rsquos tossed a pumpkin onto the lawn after Halloween to discover vines snaking along the ground the next summer knows how easy it is to grow the plant. Pumpkins have an intriguing history and fascinating genetics.

A Brief History of Pumpkins and Us

Pumpkins arose in South America, about 30 million years ago, as two older species merged.

At first Native Americans sprinkled pumpkin seeds along river and stream banks. Once these early farmers began to cultivate corn, they realized that the broad pumpkin leaves spread on the soil surface kept weeds out and moisture in, enabling the maize roots to anchor the towering plants.

The early Native Americans found many uses for pumpkins. They roasted seeds, ate strips of the succulent orange flesh, added the flowers to soups and stews, ground flour from saved seeds, and used the outsides as bowls.

The pumpkin became a Thanksgiving staple at the second celebration, after the immigrants to the New World had learned about its nutritional value and versatility from the original Americans. The pilgrims devised their own recipes. One favorite was to hollow a pumpkin out and stuff it with eggs, cream, honey, and spices and bury it in hot ashes. Hours later they hauled out the soot-encrusted squash and scooped out the delicious innards. The pilgrims also used pumpkin to make beer, and inverted the fruits and plunked them on heads to guide bowl-like haircuts.

Early explorers brought pumpkin seeds back to Europe and beyond. But Jack O&rsquoLanterns came in the opposite direction, hailing from Ireland, where people carved faces into hefty potatoes and turnips, and from England, where they carved beets. Here&rsquos an intriguing history.

Today most pumpkins are grown in India and China. The word &ldquopumpkin&rdquo comes from the Greek Pepõn, for large melon. It&rsquos in genus Cucurbita and in a &ldquotribe&rdquo with muskmelons, cucumbers, and watermelons.

Modern pumpkins are of two species. Cucurbita maxima has nutritious, orange flesh with an appealing texture and flavor. C. moschata is known for its resistance to stress, from insect pests to non-biological threats like extreme temperatures. Crossing the species yields the hardy hybrid Shintosa, which has such terrific resistance to pests and stress that growers graft melons and cucumber stems to its seedlings to tap into its superb roots.

Many modern species arose from doubling genomes. Some have even doubled twice, including the genomes of all vertebrates and of pumpkins. An article from 2017 unveiled the genome sequences of the two pumpkin species, from researchers at the Cornell-affiliated Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) and the National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

The idea of genome doubling goes back to a 1970 book, Evolution by Gene Duplications, by geneticist Susumu Ohno, which became known as the 2R hypothesis.

The genomes of the ancestors of all flowering plants doubled about 160 million years ago. The grasses are pros at it: the genomes of corn, rice, wheat, and sugarcane doubled some 70 million years ago, those of corn and sugarcane doubling again.

In most cases of genome doubling, over time, genes that duplicated functions were lost, usually from one ancestral genome. Corn, cotton, mustard weed, and some cabbages, and even with our own genomes, have also jettisoned most of one ancestral genome.

A Genetic Tale of Two Pumpkins

Sequencing of the two pumpkin genomes enabled researchers to better pinpoint the times of genome duplication, and to flesh out the genetic characteristics and adaptive traits of each species.

Both species have 20 chromosomes, which represent two &ldquopaleo-subgenomes.&rdquo The first genome diverged about 31 million years ago and the second between 3.04 and 3.84 million years ago. Geneticists figure this out using genes with known mutation rates coupled with comparisons of chromosome configurations as well as archaeological data.

But the pumpkins are unusual. Since about 3 million years ago, the genomes of the two ancestors from the more recent doubling have peacefully co-existed within the same nucleus, unlike the other double-doublers that have selectively lost most of the contributions of one parent species. This makes pumpkins &ldquopaleotetraploid.&rdquo (&ldquoPloid&rdquo refers to one full set of chromosomes, so paleotetraploid means &ldquoold four sets.&rdquo) Other genomically peaceable paleotetraploids are wheat and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, the model organism on which biologists have worked out many of the details of animal development.

&ldquoWe were excited to find out that the current two subgenomes in pumpkin largely maintain the chromosome structures of the two progenitors despite sharing the same nucleus for at least 3 million years,&rdquo said Shan Wu, first author of the paper and a BTI postdoc.

Drilling down to the details, C. maxima&rsquos genome is about 387 million bases to C. moschata&rsquos 372 million. C. maxima, the tasty one, has 30 disease resistance genes to C. moschata&rsquos 57. And the ultra-resistant hybrid Shintosa has even more.

Each pumpkin genome has about 4 dozen genes that show signs of positive selection &ndash persisting because they provide a reproductive advantage. And more than 40% of each genome consists of repeated sequences, holdovers from the most ancient doubling.

Sequencing the genomes of this favorite fruit will have practical repercussions, such as breeding for resistance to powdery mildew and increased carotenoid levels, making the pumpkin more nutritious.

Said Zhangjun Fei, associate professor at BTI and senior author of the paper, &ldquoThe high-quality pumpkin genome sequences will lead to more efficient dissection of the genetics underlying important agronomic traits, thus accelerating the breeding process for pumpkin improvement.&rdquo

The new insights into the past of pumpkins might also improve the pie that we&rsquoll be eating in a few weeks.


The Peaceable Genomes of Pumpkins

Anyone who&rsquos tossed a pumpkin onto the lawn after Halloween to discover vines snaking along the ground the next summer knows how easy it is to grow the plant. Pumpkins have an intriguing history and fascinating genetics.

A Brief History of Pumpkins and Us

Pumpkins arose in South America, about 30 million years ago, as two older species merged.

At first Native Americans sprinkled pumpkin seeds along river and stream banks. Once these early farmers began to cultivate corn, they realized that the broad pumpkin leaves spread on the soil surface kept weeds out and moisture in, enabling the maize roots to anchor the towering plants.

The early Native Americans found many uses for pumpkins. They roasted seeds, ate strips of the succulent orange flesh, added the flowers to soups and stews, ground flour from saved seeds, and used the outsides as bowls.

The pumpkin became a Thanksgiving staple at the second celebration, after the immigrants to the New World had learned about its nutritional value and versatility from the original Americans. The pilgrims devised their own recipes. One favorite was to hollow a pumpkin out and stuff it with eggs, cream, honey, and spices and bury it in hot ashes. Hours later they hauled out the soot-encrusted squash and scooped out the delicious innards. The pilgrims also used pumpkin to make beer, and inverted the fruits and plunked them on heads to guide bowl-like haircuts.

Early explorers brought pumpkin seeds back to Europe and beyond. But Jack O&rsquoLanterns came in the opposite direction, hailing from Ireland, where people carved faces into hefty potatoes and turnips, and from England, where they carved beets. Here&rsquos an intriguing history.

Today most pumpkins are grown in India and China. The word &ldquopumpkin&rdquo comes from the Greek Pepõn, for large melon. It&rsquos in genus Cucurbita and in a &ldquotribe&rdquo with muskmelons, cucumbers, and watermelons.

Modern pumpkins are of two species. Cucurbita maxima has nutritious, orange flesh with an appealing texture and flavor. C. moschata is known for its resistance to stress, from insect pests to non-biological threats like extreme temperatures. Crossing the species yields the hardy hybrid Shintosa, which has such terrific resistance to pests and stress that growers graft melons and cucumber stems to its seedlings to tap into its superb roots.

Many modern species arose from doubling genomes. Some have even doubled twice, including the genomes of all vertebrates and of pumpkins. An article from 2017 unveiled the genome sequences of the two pumpkin species, from researchers at the Cornell-affiliated Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) and the National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables in Beijing.

The idea of genome doubling goes back to a 1970 book, Evolution by Gene Duplications, by geneticist Susumu Ohno, which became known as the 2R hypothesis.

The genomes of the ancestors of all flowering plants doubled about 160 million years ago. The grasses are pros at it: the genomes of corn, rice, wheat, and sugarcane doubled some 70 million years ago, those of corn and sugarcane doubling again.

In most cases of genome doubling, over time, genes that duplicated functions were lost, usually from one ancestral genome. Corn, cotton, mustard weed, and some cabbages, and even with our own genomes, have also jettisoned most of one ancestral genome.

A Genetic Tale of Two Pumpkins

Sequencing of the two pumpkin genomes enabled researchers to better pinpoint the times of genome duplication, and to flesh out the genetic characteristics and adaptive traits of each species.

Both species have 20 chromosomes, which represent two &ldquopaleo-subgenomes.&rdquo The first genome diverged about 31 million years ago and the second between 3.04 and 3.84 million years ago. Geneticists figure this out using genes with known mutation rates coupled with comparisons of chromosome configurations as well as archaeological data.

But the pumpkins are unusual. Since about 3 million years ago, the genomes of the two ancestors from the more recent doubling have peacefully co-existed within the same nucleus, unlike the other double-doublers that have selectively lost most of the contributions of one parent species. This makes pumpkins &ldquopaleotetraploid.&rdquo (&ldquoPloid&rdquo refers to one full set of chromosomes, so paleotetraploid means &ldquoold four sets.&rdquo) Other genomically peaceable paleotetraploids are wheat and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, the model organism on which biologists have worked out many of the details of animal development.

&ldquoWe were excited to find out that the current two subgenomes in pumpkin largely maintain the chromosome structures of the two progenitors despite sharing the same nucleus for at least 3 million years,&rdquo said Shan Wu, first author of the paper and a BTI postdoc.

Drilling down to the details, C. maxima&rsquos genome is about 387 million bases to C. moschata&rsquos 372 million. C. maxima, the tasty one, has 30 disease resistance genes to C. moschata&rsquos 57. And the ultra-resistant hybrid Shintosa has even more.

Each pumpkin genome has about 4 dozen genes that show signs of positive selection &ndash persisting because they provide a reproductive advantage. And more than 40% of each genome consists of repeated sequences, holdovers from the most ancient doubling.

Sequencing the genomes of this favorite fruit will have practical repercussions, such as breeding for resistance to powdery mildew and increased carotenoid levels, making the pumpkin more nutritious.

Said Zhangjun Fei, associate professor at BTI and senior author of the paper, &ldquoThe high-quality pumpkin genome sequences will lead to more efficient dissection of the genetics underlying important agronomic traits, thus accelerating the breeding process for pumpkin improvement.&rdquo

The new insights into the past of pumpkins might also improve the pie that we&rsquoll be eating in a few weeks.